There are instruments and accessories to test essentially all types of dosage forms, both compendial  and non-compendial designs when the traditional methodologies are not suitable for unique drug release characteristics.

Dissolution Apparatus Description Common Products Types
Stirred Vessel Methods – The basket and paddle dissolution apparatus are the most commonly used throughout the world. These methods traditionally require the placement of individual dosage forms into 1L glass vessels containing a fixed volume of fluid referred to as dissolution medium.
Agilent 708-DS and 709-DS Dissolution Apparatus for Rotating Basket (USP Apparatus 1) Shaft with attached mesh basket fabricated from 316 stainless steel; the dosage form is contained within the basket, lowered into media and rotated typically at 50-100 rpm.
  • Capsules
  • Tablets
  • Floating dosage forms
  • Modified release products
  • Beads
  • Suppositories
Agilent 708-DS and 709-DS Dissolution Apparatus for Rotating Paddle (USP Apparatus 2) Paddle blade fixed to the bottom of a shaft fabricated from 316 stainless steel or PTFE coating; the dosage form is introduced directly to the media and the shaft is rotated typically at 50-75 rpm.
  • Tablets
  • Capsules
  • Hydrogels
  • Powders
  • Suspensions
  • Microparticles
Agilent 708-DS and 709-DS Dissolution Apparatus for Paddle over Disk (USP Apparatus 5) Rotating paddle apparatus (above) with the addition of a transdermal system attached to a stainless steel screen and ring assembly; placed at the bottom of the vessel.
  • Transdermal patches
Agilent 708-DS and 709-DS Dissolution Apparatus for Rotating Cylinder (USP Apparatus 6) Rotating dissolution apparatus that utilizes a rotating cylinder upon which a transdermal patch is placed; cylinder provides mixing by convection principles.
  • Transdermal patches
Reciprocating Methods – The dosage form is placed within a chamber through which media flows in alternating directions, or on/within numerous holders specifically designed for novel extended release dosage forms. The cylinders or holders typically reciprocate in 300 mL vessels although both larger and smaller outer vessels are available.
Agilent BIO-DIS Reciprocating Cylinder Apparatus (USP Apparatus 3) Mimicking the pH changes of the GI tract, glass cylinders containing the dosage form between capped screens of varying mesh sizes reciprocate 10 cm within 300 mL vessels containing media for a designated time period before the dosage form is transported to another row of media (six rows are available).
  • Capsules
  • Beads
  • Enteric coated products
  • Extended, modified or sustained release formulations
Agilent Reciprocating Holder Apparatus and 400-DS Dissolution Apparatus (USP Apparatus 7) Holders designed for sustained or extended release, including small-volume products, reciprocate through a distance of 2 cm in volumes ranging from 3-300 mL per sample row or time point.
  • Transdermal systems
  • Osmotic pumps
  • Implants
  • Drug-eluting stents
  • High-potency, low-dose systems
Alternative Applications – Additional configurations were developed to provide drug release information for the API and topical formulations.
Agilent Intrinsic Apparatus Stainless steel die containing a pellet of pure drug substance with a constant surface area to determine the intrinsic dissolution rate; used in early drug development for API characterization.
  • Pure drug substances
Agilent Enhancer Cell for Diffusion Cells Testing Cells consists of a chamber containing dosage form with synthetic or natural membrane representing skin to test biorelevance using small-volume vessels and miniature paddles.
  • Ointments
  • Creams
  • Gels
  • Transdermals